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Imam al-Tirmidhi (824-892)

He is one of the greatest Hadith scholars and Islamic legal scholars. His full name is Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Savra ibn Musa ibn al-Zahhah Abu Isa al-Zarir al-Sullami al-Zarir al-Bugiy al-Tirmidhi. He was born in a family with an average income in the settlement of the Bug (now located in the territory of Sherabad district, Surkhandarya region) near the town of Termez. Here he was buried. Information about his family and his parents hardly found.

From his young age al-Tirmidhi was exceptionally gifted, talented, dedicated and diligent These qualities distinguished him throughout his life and manifested throughout following activity. In particular, he deeply studied the science of hadith (authentic traditions of the life of the Prophet Muhammad) and Islamic law. He paid special attention of scientists' work and Hadith scholars who lived in Termez, Samarkand, Merv and other cities of Central Asia, established with a number of these scientific contacts.

At age of 26 he went to distant lands - cities of Khurasan and Iraq, as well as Hijaz, Mecca, Medina. There, he met with prominent scientists and theologians, engaged in scientific meetings and discussions, expanding their knowledge on various aspects of Islamic doctrine, history, and other common, and studied science at that time demanded that in coupe contributed to his formation as a great scientist, who received signigicant repute in the Muslim world.

He paid enormous importance of his research to the collection of prophetic traditions. To this end, he learned a lot from such prominent Hadith scholars of his era, as the Imam al-Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Abu Davud, Ibn Said Kuleiba, Isxak ibn Musa ibn Mahmud Giylan Said ibn Abdurrahman, Muhammad ibn Bashar, AH ibn al-Hajar Marvazi, Muni Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Muthanna, Sufyan ibn Vaki. Along with this, in the future Imam al-Tirmidhi prepared and a whole plciad of followers and disciples to continue his work.

Noting his extraordinary memory, one of the Arab historians Shamsuddin al-Zahabi (1274-1347) wrote in his work "Tadhkirat-1-huffaz" (Instruction about Hafiz) that on the way to Mecca al-Tirmidhi met many Hadith scholars. He asked one of them to recite the famous prophetic Hadiths. Viator agreed and asked to take a pen and paper. However, he, unfortunately, has not a pen by himslef Then he pretended like he writes all of the hadith. But when he saw that al-Tirmidhi simply passes his finger over the paper, and there are no records on it, he became angry and said: - What are you doing, are you taking my time for nothing!? In response, al-Tirmidhi asked him politely and quietly: - Do you want me to retell by heart all that I heard from you? And then he began to retell all Hadiths learned in the course of conversation in order, and struck with his phenomenal memory.

Travel and al-Tirmidhi wandering in a foreign land in search of authentic tradition lasted for many years. In Nishapur (city northeastern Iranian province of Razavi Khorasan Province), he met with the famous Hadith scholars Imam al-Bukhari. Together, they arc classified by their names Hadith transmitters and selected among them those that merit their confidence or doubt. This al-Tirmidhi writes in his book "Al-Ilyal" (disadvantages).

Returning home in 863, it proceeds to the compilation of his works. Total al-Tirmidhi has authored more than 10 works. These are - "Al-Jami" (Collection), "Al-Shamail al-Muhammadiyah" (Book of the noble traits of the Prophet Muhammad), above-mentioned book "al-Hya!", "Kitab al-Tarikh" (Book of stories), "Kitab al-Zuhdi" (Book of piety), "Kitab al-Asma va al-Kuna" (Book of names and nicknames), "Asma al-Sahaba" (The names of the Prophet's companions) and others.

The greatest popularity has received his first book - "Al-Jami", which is one of the most authoritative collections of Hadith and a member of the "Qutub al-Sitta" (six most authoritative collections of hadith). In his book "Al-Jami" contains 3962 Hadiths systematized in chapters according to the principles of Islamic law. Among them there are sahih (authentic), hasan (good) and dhaif (weak). Therefore, for each of them al-Tirmidhi gave a message about the extent of their validity and the possibility of their practical application in law.

The book is also known under the name "Al-Jami al-sahih" (Authentic collection), "al-Jamie al-Kabir" (Great compilation), "Saheeh al-Tirmidhi" (Authentic Hadith al-Tirmidhi), "al-Sunan Tirmidhi" (Al-Sunnah Al-Tirmidhi). According to the historian Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, al-Tirmidhi created this work in 884 i.e. 60 years on the basis of many years of fruitful searches and studies that allowed to assign him the title of imam.

Continuing to do their teachers of Imam al-Bukhari, Imam al-Muslim and other productive activities which had great influence on him, al-Tirmidhi has made a significant contribution to the scientific development of Hadith and was recognized as one of the most authoritative Muhadith history.

Al-Tirmidhi's works were published and republished in Egypt, Lebanon, Pakistan, India, Iran and many other countries. In particular, the book "Al-Shamail al-Muhammadiyah" ("Book of the noble traits of the Prophet Muhammad") was tranlated by our compatriot in Saudi Arabia Mahmoud Said Tarazi (died in 1992). into the Uzbek language and repeatedly published in Tashkent in Arabic script and in Cyrillic. Its noteworthy that the manuscripts of scholar arc stored in the book fund of the Institute of Oriental Studies named after Abu Rayhan Biruni of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, and arc important sources of research. This allows our scientist-orientalists, philosophers and theologians to use them in the research process and share the results of their creative activity with us.

From the first days of independence our country has paid special importance to spiritual enrichment of society. Over the years, the memory of many our ancestors rehabilitated and restored, including Imam al-Bukhari, Imam al-Tirmidhi, Abduhalik Gijduvani, Bahauddin Naqshbandi, Ahmad Yassavi, Najmiddin Kubra, Ahmad al-Ferghani, Maturidi, Burhanuddin al-Marginani, Amir Timur and others. Marking their anniversaries. Their scientific and cultural heritage has been revived, which has become the pride of nation. However, their works are still left not fully known. It gives hope that in the near future we will be able to learn more about them and to open new facets of their work and life.

IA "Jahon"